message=\hspace{16}\fbox{\fbox{g i f s c r o l l}}\hspace{16} &nscroll=3&nflicker=12&nrows=125&ncols=500 &njitter=6&vjitter=.9 & nzoom=5&zoomn=-10&zoomf=0.9 &fg=1&bg2=0&nchk=32&fg1=-1&fg2=0&opaque=2 &btype=3&bshape=1&bmargin=32&fgb1=-1&fgb2=-99 & blackfrac=30
( for gifscroll version 1.00 )
Click for:   download gifscroll
message=\LARGE\fbox{\fbox{{Scrolling\atop Banners}}}\hspace{16} &nscroll=3&nflicker=12

message=\LARGE\fbox{\fbox{{Similar to\atop Marquee Tag}}}\hspace{16} &nscroll=-3&xxxnflicker=12


This page discusses gifscroll, a C program based on gifsave89
that renders animated gif's similar to scrolling led store window signs.

Copyright © 2016-2017, John Forkosh Associates, Inc.
email: john@forkosh.com



(Last revised: January 17, 2017)

This page contains more information than you'll probably need to read. If you follow the QuickStart instructions below, try using gifscroll immediately. If you need more information, continue reading until you feel comfortable trying to use gifscroll. Return to this page as needed. Prerequisites are: some knowledge of installing and using cgi programs.
        "Computers are like Old Testament gods: lots of rules and no mercy."
        Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth   (Doubleday 1988, page 18)


      C o n t e n t s               Q u i c k S t a r t      
    (   the problem with instant gratification      
      is that it takes too long   )    
(1) Introduction
(2) Usage Summary
(3) Installation&Testing
(4) Gifscroll Reference
(5) GPL License
(6) Concluding Remarks

  Related   Pages  

gifscroll changeLog
gifscroll Listing
   
Installation:   (1) First, download gifscroll.zip and type
    unzip gifscroll.zip
(2) Then, compile gifscroll.cgi by typing
(Unix syntax illustrated, modify
for Windows as necessary)
    cc   gifscroll.c   gifsave89.c   \
      –lm   –o gifscroll.cgi

(3) Finally, install gifscroll.cgi by
    mv gifscroll.cgi to your cgi-bin/ directory,
    mkdir cgi-bin/gifscroll for gifscroll's cache,
    chmod permissions as necessary,
and you're all done.
(*) Download mimetex.zip and archive it in any
convenient location (see dependencies for details)
And see Installation for more detailed information.
 
Usage:   To see the simple scrolling banner,
    message=Hello, world.
in your html page, just write the tag
<img src="/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi? message=Hello, world.">

To see the same banner with a simple additional effect,
    message=Hello, world.&nchkfg=4
write the same tag with the additional query string attribute
<img src="/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi?message=Hello, world.
    & nchkfg=4">


To see the overly-elaborate scrolling banner,
simultaneously combining many gifscroll features,
    message=\Huge\textbf H e l l o , w o r l d .\hspace{16} &nscroll=3&nflicker=8&nrows=70&ncols=450 &njitter=4&vjitter=.8&nzoom=3&zoomn=-8&zoomf=0.9 &fg=1&bg2=0&nchk=16&fg1=-1&fg2=0&opaque=2 &btype=3&bshape=1&bmargin=16&fgb1=-1&fgb2=-99&blackfrac=30
in your html page, write the (equally elaborate) tag
<img src="/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi?
   message=\Huge\textbf H e l l o , w o r l d .\hspace{16}
   & nscroll=3 & nflicker=8 & nrows=70 & ncols=450
   & njitter=4 & vjitter=.8 & nzoom=3 & zoomn=-8 & zoomf=0.9
   & fg=1 & bg2=0 & nchk=16 & fg1=-1 & fg2=0 & opaque=2
   & btype=3 & bshape=1 & bmargin=16 & fgb1=-1 & fgb2=-99
   & blackfrac=30">

Most of your banners will probably be much simpler,
requiring tags with much shorter and simpler query strings.

(1) Introduction  

Gifscroll, licensed under the GPL, is a CGI program written in C that renders animated gif's representing scrolling led signs. You can alternatively think of gifscroll as an elaborate version of marquee tags. Such elaborate scrolling led signs are typically used as dedicated store window displays. Gifscroll can be similarly used for that purpose with any spare display, but is primarily intended for decorative banners rendered on your html pages.

Gifscroll's html usage is as simple as possible, with an <img> tag containing a src= attribute that executes gifscroll.cgi along with a ?query_string whose attribute=value pairs describe the scrolling banner you want rendered. For example,

<img src="http://www.yourdomain.com/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi?
message=This is a test. & nflicker=4">
    
renders...
message=\Huge This is a test.&nflicker=4

and a simple php script like

   <?php
   $gifscrollurl = "http://www.yourdomain.com/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi?";
   function gifscroll( $querystring ) {
     global $gifscrollurl;
     $url  = $gifscrollurl . $querystring;
     echo  '<img src="',$url,'">'; }
   ?>

lets you simply write <?php gifscroll("message=This is a test.&nflicker=4"); ?> for the same result.

Physical hardware-based store window scrolling led signs, which can cost thousands of dollars, like those sold by
      U.S. Distributor of LED Signs
provided the inspiration for programming gifscroll, which costs nothing and runs on any existing computer and display.
Note: Scroll down to the bottom of that page for a link to the "Instruction Manual" for their hardware-based signs, which illustrates ideas for many different scrolling-banner effects, and you may also want to see their "Photo Gallery".

You can also find similar existing software-based solutions like
      SignBot
      FlashVortex
      MasterGreetings
      Animated Gif Led Signs
Gifscroll uniquely lets you generate signs on-the-fly, using <img> tags embedded in your html pages. And gifscroll provides various effects not provided by the others. Conversely, some of the others provide effects not currently available with gifscroll, although (if I do say so myself:) gifscroll is currently perhaps the most elaborate such program. And it's not clear to me why: maybe there's just not much demand for such programs, or else this little market niche has been overlooked and underserved. The existence of expensive hardware-based signs suggests that "not much demand" isn't the answer, which further suggests that gifscroll may just be the first among many more elaborate software-based solutions to follow it in the future. Meanwhile, enjoy gifscroll today.

Dependencies

Gifscroll is based on two of my other programs:   gifsave89 to generate animated gif's,   and mimetex to create rasterized bitmaps of messages you want displayed on your banners. A copy of gifsave89.c is already included in your gifscroll.zip distribution.

And you don't need mimetex.c to compile the executable image gifscroll.cgi that runs on your server. Rather, gifscroll uses my online public mimetex webservice to rasterize your messages. But I can't guarantee indefinite future availability of this webservice, in which case you can easily host your own version -- if you have the code. So download mimetex.zip (do it right now!), and just archive it any convenient place you like. If my public webservice ever disappears, you can worry about installing your own then. At least you'll have every single line of code necessary to generate your gifscroll banners.

Source Code

File gifscroll.c contains all functions and header information comprising gifscroll. The ultimate intent is to provide a framework in which other programmers can add features and effects in a reasonably straightforward fashion. But the current codebase is more accurately described as a prototype (rather than a framework). It's largely a "hodge-podge" of spaghetti-code, cobbled together just to illustrate ideas and the feasibility of their implementaion. Eventually, the accumulation of features will allow me (or others) to step back, take a higher-level look over a large enough landscape of functionality, and figure out how to refactor the "hodge-podge" into a sensible framework that can more easily accommodate forseeable future ideas. In the meantime, if you're bold enough to try figuring out what I'm doing, just continue the "bags-on-bags" development process I've already fallen into. I don't think refactoring/redesign is warranted at this time -- not until further experience with the prototype reveals an underlying and more desirable "big picture".

(2) Usage Summary  

The Quickstart Section above illustrates a few very simple usage examples, and the Reference Section below documents all gifscroll attributes and illustrates their behavior (which is why this page takes so long to load:). Here, we further introduce the basics, in somewhat more detail than the Quickstart. While not as detailed as the Reference, this section may provide enough information to generate all the scrolling banners you want, in which case you needn't bother reading further.

Gifscroll typically runs as a CGI program after you've installed it in the cgi-bin/ directory on your server. And then your html pages access it to display scrolling banners with <img> tags of the following form

<img src="http://yourserver.com/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi
? attribute=value
& attribute=value & etc">

where the attribute=value pairs comprising gifscroll's ?query_string describe the scrolling banner you want generated.

Now just browse the examples below, choose any combination of effects you like, and construct a ?query_string containing the corresponding combination of attribute=value pairs for those effects. There's a pretty good chance that will "just work", in which case (to repeat myself) you needn't bother reading any further.

Attribute Summary

Attribute Brief Description
(click attribute for details)
Examples

message text for displayed banner,
following LaTeX-like markup,
default=Hello, World.
message=\LARGE This is a test.
message=\LARGE This is a test.

Note: gifscroll messages are formatted using the LaTeX-like markup supported
by mimeTeX. The \fbox{ } directive, along with sizes, fonts, etc, can often
be decoratively used. Syntax Reference provides additional markup information.
 
message=\Huge\fbox{\fbox{This is a test.}}
message=\Huge\fbox{\fbox{This is a test.}}

nscroll #pixels scrolled per frame,
positive=scroll left, negative=right,
default=3
message=\LARGE Hello, World.&nscroll=1
message=\LARGE Hello, World.&nscroll=1

message=\LARGE Hello, World.&nscroll=-5
message=\LARGE Hello, World.&nscroll=-5

nflicker #times to "flicker" background/foreground,
during one full scroll of message,
default=0 (no flickering)
message=\LARGE Hello, World.&nflicker=6
message=\LARGE Hello, World.&nflicker=6

nchk
fg2

nchkfg
nchk= #pixels per random background
    checkerboard, default=0 (no background
    checkerboarding)

fg2 = color# for alternate checkerboard
    squares, 0=transparent/background
    (otherwise message would be
    obscured/unreadable)

nchkfg = Alternatively, #pixels for
    foreground checkerboard
Note: the message for both banners below is
message=\Huge\textbf Hello, World.
so that the text is large enough to be seen with checkerboarding
 
message=\Huge\textbf Hello, World.&nchk=8&fg2=0
nchk=8&fg2=0

message=\Huge\textbf Hello, World.&nchkfg=3
nchkfg=3

bmargin
btype
bshape
bmargin = #pixels for border margin
    width (default=0, no border)

btype = border type
    etc
    etc
    etc

bshape = border shape
    etc
bmargin=20
bmargin=20

bmargin=16&btype=3
bmargin=16&btype=3

bmargin=20&btype=3&bshape=1&fgb1=-1&fgb2=-99
bmargin=20&btype=3&bshape=1&fgb1=-1&fgb2=-99

nzoom
zoomn
zoomf
nzoom = #times to zoom (shrink/enlarge)
    during one full scroll of message,
    default=0 (no zooming)
    note: either a message or a pbmfile (see
    below) may be zoom'ed

zoomn = #steps to zoom (shrink and
    re-enlarge) during each zoom
    default=6 (if nzoom>0)
    note: if zoomn<0, its abs() is used
    and foreground color is randomized
    for each step of each zoom

zoomf = fraction 0<zoomf<1 to shrink
    during each zoom step (1,...,zoomn),
    default=0.9 (if nzoom>0)
    note: total zoom = zoomf^zoomn,
    must remain >0.01
nzoom=4&zoomn=10&zoomf=.75
nzoom=4&zoomn=10&zoomf=.75

njitter
vjitter
nrows
njitter = #times to vertically "jitter"
    up/down, during one full scroll
    of message, default=0 (no jittering)

vjitter = fraction, 0<vjitter<1, of banner
    height to "jitter"
    default=0.1 (if njitter>0)

nrows = #pixels for total banner height
    default=height needed for message,
    you must specify greater, or else
    there's no room for any "jitter"
njitter=5&vjitter=.75&nrows=128
njitter=5&vjitter=.75&nrows=128

pbmfile
pbmf

nframes
pbmfile = INSTEAD of message,
    filename of uncompressed P1 .pbm file,
    containing black&white pixels comprising
    foreground image to be scrolled

pbmf = optionally, a fraction 0<pbmf<1 to
    shrink the pbmfile image,
    in case it's too large

nframes = #frames for animation,
    required when nscroll=0.
    In this example, we don't want
    the logo to scroll, just to
    display the flickering checkerboard.
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&nchkfg=3&nscroll=0&pbmf=.25 &nframes=25
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.25&nchkfg=3&nscroll=0&nframes=25

utheta
uaxis
utheta = instead of scrolling (when
    nscroll=0), or even in addition
    to scrolling (when nscroll>0),
    #degrees to rotate image during each
    frame (nframes not required when
    nscroll=0 and utheta given)

uaxis = default uaxis=1,0,0 rotates around
    x-axis, or 0,1,0 around y-axis, or 0,0,1
    around z-axis.   Also, uaxis=1,1,0
    rotates around diagonal axis, etc.
nscroll=0&utheta=5
nscroll=0&utheta=5

Note: all querystrings below also contain
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.2&nscroll=0&utheta=5

 
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.2&nscroll=0&utheta=5 &uaxis=0,1,0
uaxis=0,1,0
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.2&nscroll=0&utheta=5 &uaxis=0,0,1
uaxis=0,0,1
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.2&nscroll=0&utheta=5 &uaxis=1,1,0
uaxis=1,1,0

mtheta
maxis
mtheta = similar idea to utheta
    above, but rotates each character
    of the message individually
    (can't be used with pbmfile,
    and you must supply a message)

maxis = default maxis=0,1,0 rotates
    around y-axis.   (Other options
    not yet available, and the
    maxis attribute is ignored.)
nscroll=0&mtheta=5
nscroll=0&mtheta=5

yrad yrad = "wraps" message (or
    pbmfile) around a cylinder
    of radius yrad pixels
yrad=125
yrad=125
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.35&yrad=57
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.35&yrad=57

splice
stype
utheta0
uthetaspl
uthetatot
splice = second message, or pbmfile
    (must be used in conjunction
    with utheta, see above)

stype = 1(default):message, or 2:pbmfile
utheta0 = theta for first frame,
    90 and 270 are "splice points",
    or any odd-number multiple of 90.

uthetaspl = theta where original
    replaced by splice, should be
    >utheta0 and also a "splice point"

uthetatot = total #degrees for banner,
    should be >uthetaspl
    and also a "splice point"
message=Hello,...&splice=World.&nscroll=0&utheta=5 &utheta0=270&uthetaspl=630&uthetatot=990
message=Hello,...&splice=World.&nscroll=0
&utheta=5&utheta0=270&uthetaspl=630&uthetatot=990

ptheta
pframes
when using utheta ...
ptheta = degrees at which animation pauses,
    typically chosen as 360,
    and then a pause occurs at every
    multiple of ptheta (e.g.,360,720,etc)

pframes = each pause repeats that frame this #times
    (default 0 for no pause)

Notes: Checkerboarding and other effects
    are turned off during paused frames,
    as illustrated by the elaborate example.
    This gives you time to read the message
    without any decoration.
Note: The following complicated example reproduces
    my logo displayed in the upper-left corner of this page...
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=.25&nscroll=0&nchkfg=2 &utheta=5&uthetatot=990 &splice=\LARGE\textbf\center{John Forkosh
Associates} &uthetaspl=630&utheta0=270&ptheta=360&pframes=20

pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=.25&nscroll=0&nchkfg=2
&utheta=5&uthetatot=990
&splice=\LARGE\textbf\center{John Forkosh<br>Associates}
&uthetaspl=630&utheta0=270&ptheta=360&pframes=20

(3) Installation & Testing  

(3a) Download & Compile  

The steps needed to download and compile gifscroll are

(3b) Test gifscroll  

Before installing gifscroll.cgi, you can test it from your shell's command line, as follows. Just type,
        ./gifscroll.cgi "message=testing&nchkfg=3"
or any similar query_string you like, between "..." quotes. That should produce output file gifscrolltest.gif, which you can view in your browser, or in any gif viewer capable of rendering animated gif's. If it looks okay, then you're good to go. (Note that any backslashes in your "..." query_string will likely have to be escaped, as per your shell's conventions.)

And also note that you can use gifscroll's command-line mode for production purposes as well. Just generate the scrolling banner(s) you want, and then rename it(them), e.g.,
        mv gifscrolltest.gif mybanner.gif
and then copy mybanner.gif to your website, where a tag like <img src="mybanner.gif"> will display it. This way, there's no need to install gifscroll.cgi directly on your site, and you can ignore the next step.

(3c) Install gifscroll  

You'll typically want the gifscroll.cgi executable image, that you produced in the compile step above, to be installed in your cgi-bin/ directory. First, make sure to
        chmod 755 gifscroll.cgi
(or whatever other permissions your webserver may require), and then just mv gifscroll.cgi to your cgi-bin/ directory.

There's one more thing you need to do. Generating scrolling banners is somewhat compute intensive, so gifscroll caches the images it renders, and just emits those cached images whenever it's called with a duplicate query_string. The cache directory is always called gifscroll/, and always in the same directory as gifscroll.cgi. So just mkdir cgi-bin/gifscroll/, or make the cache directory anywhere you prefer, and put a symlink to it in your cgi-bin/ directory. And now you're done.

(4) Gifscroll Reference  

This section exhaustively discusses each attribute recognized by gifscroll. Attributes are presented roughly in order by "importance", though that's more of a personal judgment call. Contents above presents an alphabetical list, navigating you to each attribute in that order, in case you have any trouble finding what you're looking for this way.


message

The most basic gifscroll image tag is of the form

<img src="http://yourdomain.com/cgi-bin/gifscroll.cgi?
message=Hello, world.">

which renders the scrolling banner you've already seen so many times above that I won't bother reproducing it yet again here. But what's important to discuss in somewhat more detail here is the markup syntax recognized by gifscroll messages. That's fully discussed by the Syntax Reference Section of mimeTeX, which is the program gifscroll uses to get rasterized bitmaps of your messages. Here we'll more briefly highlight several fragments of this syntax particularly relevant for typical gifscroll messages.

    Linebreaks:         For multiple-line banners, you'll need to specify a linebreak/newline character in your message. Different markups sometimes specify linebreaks in different ways. One typical way is by \\ double-backslash, but that can sometimes be mis-interpreted as escapes by shells, by browsers, etc. So gifscroll recognizes <br> like html markup. Thus,

message=This<br>is<br>a test.
renders...

To center lines, one above another, use \center{line 1 <br> line 2} as in,

message=
\center{This<br>is<br>a<br>test.}
renders...

The enclosing { } braces are necessary for internal reasons we needn't discuss.

    Whitespace:         You can just press the spacebar multiple times to insert a corresponding amount of additional whitespace, just like you'd expect. But note that whitespace at the very beginning and very end of your message is trimmed by gifscroll's querystring parser. What's also available for whitespace anywhere in your message, and which won't be trimmed from the beginning or end, is \hspace{n} where n specifies the number of pixels of whitespace you want at that point. For example,

message=This\hspace{20}is a test.
     
message=This\hspace{60}is a test.
renders...
     

    Font Size:         No need to emphasize that you'll sometimes want  LARGER  banners, and sometimes  smaller  banners. mimeTeX supplies 11 font sizes, specified by \size preceding your message text (and followed by a space), e.g., message=\tiny tiny message,

\tiny
\scriptsize
\footnotesize        
\small
\normalsize
\large
\Large
\LARGE
\huge
\Huge
\HUGE

  \HUGE is gifscroll's default. Still not large enough?:) Larger might actually be reasonable if, for example, you're using gifscroll on a spare monitor for a store window display, instead of buying a dedicated scrolling led sign. In that kind of situation, mimeTeX provides \magstep{n}, where 1≤n≤10 is an integer between 1 and 10, and magnifies the size of all characters by that number. Thus,

message=\HUGE\magstep{3}Testing
renders...

I won't display any larger \magstep's here. They get kind of big. By the way, you're probably noticing some antialiasing "staircasing" here. That'll be even less noticeable on scrolling banners (and in any case, not much I can easily do about it). For more detailed information, Font Sizes contains a complete discussion.

    Fonts:         mimeTeX has several fonts besides gifscroll's default \text font. mimeTeX Fonts contains a complete discussion. Begin your message with \mathbb, etc, as illustrated in the table below, to render the corresponding font. And several additional fonts, and many symbols, not illustrated in the table, are also available, as discussed in mimeTeX Fonts.

    Miscellaneous:         Syntax Reference is a detailed discussion of the markup recognized by gifscroll messages. Several features, like \fbox{ } briefly alluded to above, may prove useful or decorative, etc. For example,

message=\fbox{This is a test.}
     
message=\fbox{\fbox{This is a test.}}
renders...
     

It's hard for me to anticipate what features you might find useful or decorative or frivolous, although gifscroll is itself arguably pretty frivolous to begin with, beyond any decorative value it may add to your web pages. All in the eye of the beholder.


pbmfile

Instead of the message attribute discussed above, gifscroll can generate a scrolling animation of pretty much any image saved as a P1 .pbm file. Moreover, you can usually reformat any graphic image as a P1 .pbm using ImageMagick convert. For example, if you already have a png image, then

convert -compress none imagefile.png imagefile.pbm

outputs an uncompressed P1 .pbm black&white bitmap file representing the same image. And you can simultaneously apply other convert effects. For example,

convert -compress none -resize 200x300
 imagefile.png imagefile.pbm

also resizes your original png image to 200x300 pixels, which may be more appropriate for a scrolling banner (note that if you want to "resize" a pdf file, then -density is the -switch to use).

You may be tempted to convert a multi-colored image to the black&white foreground/background P1 format required by gifscroll, which it uses as a mask. That may or may not yield acceptable-looking results. Monochrome images are best.


pbmf

If you haven't used convert's -resize (or -density) -switch, as described immediately above, or maybe haven't used convert at all to obtain your P1 .pbm file, you may still want to resize an existing image for your gifscroll banners. The attribute pbmf=0.nnn where 0.0<0.nnn<1.0 is a number greater than 0.0 and less than 1.0, shrinks images to that fraction of their original size (pbmf can't enlarge images). Using my ubiquitous "jf-logo" as an example,

pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.15
     
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.25
renders...
pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.15&nscroll=0&nframes=1       pbmfile=jflogo.pbm&pbmf=0.25&nscroll=0&nframes=1

nscroll

This simply specifies the number of pixels per frame to scroll your banner, left or right. Positive values scroll left, negative values scroll right, default is nscroll=3 . Gifscroll renders the number of frames necessary to scroll through one complete cycle of your message, so that when your browser repeats the gif, the message seamlessly repeats another scrolling cycle.


nframes

You may also specify nscroll=0 to inhibit horizontal scrolling altogether. In that case you must also provide the nframes=n attribute, where n is any positive number specifying the number of frames you want generated. If you specify both a non-zero nscroll and also nframes, then nframes are rendered, and your message may "jump" when scrolling repeats.


delay

The delay=n attribute specifies the delay in hundredths of a second (so delay=100 specifies one second) between the display of successive frames of your animation. The default delay=0 in principle tells your browser to display successive frames without delay. But most browsers inhibit too-fast display, and typically treat delay=0 and 1 (and sometimes larger numbers) as 10. Below are a few examples that may display differently on different browsers. You may typically just ignore delay and let the browser do what it thinks best, unless display timing affects the look-and-feel you're trying to achieve.

default
delay=0
     
delay=2
     
delay=5
renders...
message=\LARGE Hello, World.&delay=0                   message=\LARGE Hello, World.&delay=2                   message=\LARGE Hello, World.&delay=5

(5) GPL License  

"My grandfather once told me there are two kinds of people:
    Those who do the work and those who take the credit.
    He told me to try to be in the first group; there was much less competition.
"
Indira Gandhi, the late Prime Minister of India

gifscroll's copyright is registered by me with the US Copyright Office, and I hereby license it to you under the terms and conditions of the GPL. There is no official support of any kind whatsoever, and you use gifscroll entirely at your own risk, with no guarantee of any kind, in particular with no warranty of merchantability.

By using gifscroll, you warrant that you have read, understood and agreed to these terms and conditions, and that you possess the legal right and ability to enter into this agreement and to use gifscroll in accordance with it.

Hopefully, the law and ethics regarding computer programs will evolve to make this kind of obnoxious banter unnecessary. In the meantime, please forgive me my paranoia.

To protect your own intellectual property, I recommend Copyright Basics from The Library of Congress, in particular Circular 61, Copyright Registration for Computer Programs. Very briefly, download Form TX and follow the included instructions. In principle, you automatically own the copyright to anything you write the moment it's on paper. In practice, if the matter comes under dispute, the courts look _very_ favorably on you for demonstrating your intent by registering the copyright _before_ infringement occurs.

(6) Concluding Remarks  

"Nostalgia isn't what it used to be."   –– Peter De Vries

I hope you find gifscroll useful. If so, a contribution to the GNU project, is suggested, especially if you're a company that's currently profitable.


Copyright © 2016-2017, John Forkosh Associates, Inc.
email: john@forkosh.com